First, the content material summary:
To check the understanding of the applicants with the types of risk factors and mechanical intrinsic safety requirements of major tools and areas during the produce and utilization of machinery.
Second, the key points, difficult points:
(1) Understand the main groups of mechanical items;
(2) Understand the intrinsic safety requirements of mechanical style and the kind of safety device of the machine;
(3) Familiar with the boiler space, atmosphere compressor station, gas train station, oxygen train station, acetylene place dangerous stage and general safety technology management requirements.
Third, the content clarifies:
Machinery is a gadget that is assembled by a number of interconnected parts and may perform certain functions. During the procedure of the mechanical equipment, at least some of the comparative motions are made regarding to certain rules. The full mechanical gadget consists of a perfect mover, a control and control program, a transmitting system, a support device and an actuator.
Machinery is an essential gear in modern production and life. While bringing high effectiveness, speed and convenience to people, the machine also brings mechanical damage such as impact, extrusion, trimming and other nonmechanical hazards such as electrical surprise, noise and high temperature during its produce, operation and use.
The task of mechanical safety is to take system measures to ensure the safety and health of workers in the whole process of production and use of machinery, from various unsafe factors. Mechanical safety includes two elements of the protection of mechanical item making and the basic safety of mechanical products.
1.1, mechanical item manufacturing safety
(1) Primary groups of mechanical products
There are many types of mechanical products. The main products of the machinery market are as comes after:
(1) Agricultural equipment: tractors, internal combustion engines, planters, harvesting equipment, etc.
(2) Large mining equipment: metallurgical machinery, mining machinery, lifting machinery, launching and unloading equipment, commercial and mining vehicles, cement products, etc.
(3) Construction machinery: forklifts, earthmoving equipment, compaction equipment, cement equipment, etc.
(4) Petrochemical general machinery: oil drilling and mining machinery, oil refining machinery, chemical machinery, pumps, fans, valves, gas compressors, refrigeration and air conditioning machinery, paper machinery, printing machinery, plastic processing machinery, pharmaceutical machinery.
(5) Electric machinery: power generation machinery, ball bearings transformers, electrical motors, high and low voltage switches, wire and cable, batteries, electrical welding devices, home appliances, etc.
(6) Machine tools: metal reducing machine tools, forging machines, foundry machinery, woodworking equipment, etc.
(7) Vehicles: trucks, road buses, vehicles, modified cars, motorcycles, etc.
(8) Instrumentation: automated musical instruments, electrical equipment, optical musical instruments, component analyzers, motor vehicle instrumentation, electric tools, audio-visual tools, cameras, etc.
(9) Fundamental machinery: bearings, hydraulic parts, closes, powder metallurgy products, standard fasteners, commercial chains, gears, molds, etc.
(10) Packaging machinery: packaging machinery, metallic packaging items, metal containers, etc.
(11) Environmental protection machinery: water pollution prevention equipment, surroundings pollution prevention equipment, solid waste materials treatment equipment, etc.
(12) Additional machinery.
The main products of the nonmechanical industry include railway equipment, construction machinery, textile equipment, light industrial machinery, and marine machinery.
(2) Mechanical safety design and machine safety device
Mechanical safety includes safety at all stages of design, manufacturing, installation, adjustment, use, maintenance, and disassembly. Protection design minimizes risk. Mechanical safety design refers to the appropriate shape and essential contraindications position from the component material to the part in the mechanical design stage, from limiting the working drive, the quality and quickness of the shifting parts to reducing sound and vibration, using inbuilt protection technology and power resource, applying zero The theory of pressured mechanical action between elements, mixed with ergonomic desk concepts and other actions, avoids or reduces the risk by selecting suitable style structures; it can also enhance the dependability, operation mechanization or automation of the gear and Procedures such as changes and maintenance outside the risk zone to avoid or decrease the danger.
Intrinsically safe
Intrinsic safety is normally a mechanical safety method that is definitely used by mechanical designers to take measures to get rid of mechanical hazards during the design phase.
1) Adopting intrinsic protection technology
Intrinsically safe technology refers to the design and manufacture of mechanical predetermined functions by using this technology. It can satisfy the basic safety requirements of the machine itself when executing predetermined functions of the machine under established circumstances without using additional safety precautions. These include: staying away from sharp edges, sharp edges and bulges; making sure sufficient security distances; determining limitations on physical quantities; using intrinsically safe procedures and power sources.
2) Limit mechanical stress
The mechanical stress of the mechanical parts does not exceed the permissible value and a enough safety factor is guaranteed.
3) Safety of materials and materials
Materials, fuels, and materials utilized to produce equipment need to not endanger the basic safety or wellness of personnel during use. The mechanical properties of the material, such as tensile strength, shear power, influence strength, yield limit, etc., should meet the load requirements for carrying out the intended function; the material should become able to endure the predetermined environmental circumstances, such as corrosion level of resistance, aging resistance, and level of resistance. The ability to put on; the material should possess uniformity, prevent the metallographic framework of the material from getting uneven due to unreasonable process design, and generate residual tension; at the same time, avoid using poisonous materials or chemicals, and should avoid the machinery itself or due to use. The risk of fireplace and explosion from gases, liquids, dirt, vapors or additional substances produced by specific components.
4) Fulfilling protection ergonomic principles
In the mechanical design, the security man-machine engineering theory is fulfilled by rationally distributing human-machine functions, adapting to human body characteristics, man-machine interface design, work space layout, etc., improving the operability and reliability of mechanical gear, and producing the operator’s physical strength Consumption and mental stress are minimized, thereby reducing functional errors.
5) Protection concepts for designing control systems
During the usage of equipment, the standard dangerous conditions are: unintentional begin, out of control of speed change, movement can not really prevent, shifting mechanised parts or workpieces fall off, the function of basic safety products is normally blocked. The style of the control system should take into account the operating modes of the several procedures or the use of mistake screen devices so that the owner can deal with them properly.
6) Prevent the problems of pneumatic and hydraulic systems
Machines that use pneumatic, hydraulic, heat, and other gadgets need to end up being designed to avoid the potential hazards associated with accidental release of these energies.